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Running Title: HOMOSEXUALITY IN LATIN AMERICA

A 6 Pages Term Paper on Homosexuality in Latin America

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Homosexuality in Latin America

Scholars have begun to bring into being a on the rise body of writing about gender in Latin America and its relationship to sexuality and homosexuality. This matter of Latin American perspective suggests explore the several production of gender in Latin America focusing on various philosophy of homosexuality or same-sex eroticism and their social materialization. Homosexuality is related with sexual interaction. Sexual interaction will always be a topic in any discussion of homosexuality. Homosexuality is associated with sexual intercourse. FT: MIAMI – A central judge Thursday upheld Florida's forbid on implementation by gays, accepting the state's quarrel that married heterosexual couples provide a more stable home for children (from given reference).

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``homosexual families are equivalently stable, are able to provide proper gender identification or are no more socially stigmatizing than married heterosexual families.''

``The law is perfectly constitutional as a legislative policy choice,'' Walker said (from given reference).

Gay and Lesbian in Latin American

"His groundbreaking study must necessarily be read by all who would examine homosexuality in Latin American literature, in order to shape and/or refine their own ideological and strategically stances." Lesbian and Gay Studies Newsletter

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"They give the people what they want, and what the preponderance of the island wants is for homosexuality to not be a reality."

McKenzie and others, like South Florida dancehall DJ King Waggy T. (from given reference).

Homosexuality was an offense liable to be punished by prison time in the Soviet era. Gay society has matured in Moscow and other huge Russian cities in the past decade, but remains scowl upon by most of the people.

Luzhkov's statement added that homosexuality ``goes against conventional moral values of most Russians, as well as the canons of the main sacred admission in the city.''(From given reference).

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The American Heritage Dictionary (1992 edition) defines homophobia as "aversion to gay or homosexual people or their lifestyle or culture" and "behavior or an act based on this aversion." A diversity of motivation lie beneath sexual narrow-mindedness. One way to understand those motivations is to ask how an exacting heterosexual's antigay approach benefits her or him expressively.

This determined come within reach of has been used to understand attitudes in many different domains. Its basic hypothesis is that people hold and express particular attitudes because they derive psychological benefit from doing so. For any individual, attitudes toward unlike objects can serve different functions. Furthermore, different individuals can express attitudes toward an object that appear to be identical but actually serve different functions. A final assumption of this approach is that attitudes are active and are affected by situational variables. Different situations make different psychological needs salient, which can affect the extent to which a particular approach is functional or not in that situation.

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Thus, a functional perspective assumes that heterosexuals have unlike motivations for their attitudes toward lesbians, gay men, and homosexuality. Attitudes serving an experiential function assist heterosexuals in making sense of their previous interactions with gay people. They do this by helping the individual to fit those interactions into a larger world view, one that is organized primarily in terms of the individual's own self interest.

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Some heterosexuals accept gay people in common on the basis of pleasant interaction experiences with a specific gay man or lesbian. Others hold negative attitudes toward the complete group mainly as a result of their objectionable experiences with particular gay men or lesbians. LP: MONTREAL (CP) -- While 75 per cent of Canadians believed that homosexuals justify the equal rights as everyone else only a slim majority also thought gay people should have the right to adopt, a sample suggests. Canadians felt gays and lesbians must have the similar rights as heterosexuals, compared with 19.5 per cent who disagreed (from given reference).

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Sexual injustice can only serve an experimental role when the heterosexual has had personal contact with gay men or lesbians. For those who have not had such contact, homosexuality and gay people are primarily symbols. Whereas attitudes toward people with whom one has straight knowledge purpose first and foremost to systematize and make sense of those experiences, attitudes to symbols serve a different kind of function. Such attitudes help people to increase their self-esteem by expressing significant features of them – by declaring (to themselves and to others) what kind of people they are. Affirming who one is often is accomplished by distancing oneself from or even attacking people who signify the sort of person one is not (or does not want to be).

Attitudes serving a value-expressive function enable heterosexuals to affirm their belief in and observance to imperative values that are very much correlated to their self concepts.

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When attitudes serve a social communicative meaning, expressing the manner strengthens one's sense of belonging to a particular group and helps an individual to gain taking, approval, or love from other people whom she or he considers important (e.g., peers, family, neighbors). Finally, attitudes helping an ego self-protective purpose lower a person's anxiety resulting from her or his unconscious psychological conflicts, such as those adjacent sexuality or gender. It is vital to know the nexus between individual attitudes and educational heterosexism. A particular demonstration of sexual discrimination can serve one or more of these purposes only when the individual's psychological needs converge with the culture's beliefs about homosexuality.

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Antigay injustice can be value-expressive only when an individual's self-concept is closely attached to values that also have become socially defined as antithetical to homosexuality. It can be social expressive only insofar as an individual sturdily needs to be accepted by members of a social group that rejects gay people or homosexuality. It can be self-protective only when lesbians and gay men are ethnically defined in a way that links them to an individual's own psychological difference.  A new study indicates that lesbians and gay men who come out of the closet to their heterosexual friends and family members help to create more positive attitudes toward homosexuality. "Heterosexuals with a gay friend or relative have significantly more favorable attitudes toward lesbians and gay men as a group," said Dr. Gregory Herek.

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It is reported that simply having personal contact with a lesbian or gay man does not necessarily affect heterosexuals' feelings about gays and lesbians. Rather, heterosexuals tend to hold favorable attitudes if they know two or more gay people, if those people are close friends or immediate family members, and if there has been open discussion about the friend or relative's sexual orientation. Eric Glunt in The Journal of Sex Research in 1993 – have shown a relationship between heterosexuals' attitudes and their contact experiences. The new study, however, is the first to probe the specific conditions under which contact appears to change attitudes. "Direct disclosure of one's homosexuality – talking about it openly – appears to play an important role in changing attitudes," said Herek.  By directly discussing her or his sexual orientation, (Herek, 1993) a lesbian or gay man can help a heterosexual loved one to reach a better understanding of homosexuality and what it means to be gay.

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"Coming out is a highly intimate disclosure,” (Herek, 1987). In many situations, he said, revealing such information can strengthen a relationship, provided that gay men and lesbians do it in a sensitive way. "When they first recognize their own sexual orientation, most lesbians and gay men need some time to get used to it," ( Herek, 1986). The same is true for heterosexual friends or family members, he said. "For heterosexuals, finding out that a loved one is gay may be a big surprise. It forces them to change their expectations. They need time, information, and understanding."

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Indeed, the survey indicated that a cause-and-effect relationship between contact and attitudes works in both directions. (Herek, 1993), when lesbians and gay men have a choice, they are more likely to disclose their sexual orientation to members of groups that are generally tolerant of homosexuality. These groups include women, liberals, and the college educated.

But while gay men and lesbians tend to come out to people whom they expect to respond positively, it is also observed that heterosexuals who have had past contact hold more favorable attitudes regardless of their sex, political beliefs, schooling, or other background characteristics. Moreover, those with contact appear to develop even more (Herek, 1992) stressed that the study's design does not permit a definite conclusion that having contact causes heterosexuals to change their attitudes.

Even the island's Prime Minister, P.J. Patterson, felt compelled to deny rumors of his homosexuality in the media: "My credentials as a lifelong heterosexual person are impeccable," he said in a current newspaper article. So this music, born in the 1980s to return what was simmering in the streets of Kingston, has become a lyrical sign of type for the sexual prejudice that persist to govern (from given reference).

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``Colombia is becoming one of the worlds biggest sexual paradises, like Thailand,'' says an Interpol source in Bogotá.

``Child prostitution is very, very big. It's terrifying. Many foreigners and, in some cases, even travel agencies, are taking advantage of children.''

``The statistics on the mistreatment and sexual abuse of children are getting higher every day in our country as an indication of the violence,'' says Jose Manuel Gonzalez, a sex teaching therapist.

``In Colombia, we can estimate a child is abused every two hours.''

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In its recent report, ``The Rights of Childhood,'' the public defender's office approximate up to 2 million kids are being maltreated (in a country of 38 million). Of these, an estimated 850,000 are fatally battered. Many of these kids wind up as prostitutes.

The government decries the problem. There are rules against it. While grown-up prostitution is legal, it's considered ``sexual abuse'' to have sex with a child prostitute.

``Everybody knows sex tourism is booming,'' says English television

(From given reference).

Dr. Capitanio examined. "Whether we looked at the attitudes of men, the highly religious, the elderly, or practically any other group, those were apparent for virtually all the reporting personal contact expressed more favorable attitudes toward gay people than did those without contact".  

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"The only group for which the difference between those with and without contact was small, (said Herek)"was African American respondents." He explained, however, that many of the Black survey respondents who knew a gay person reported that their contact had been with a distant relative or acquaintance. Those with a close friend who was gay generally had positive feelings toward gay people, which are consistent with the other survey respondents.

``There's a definite laissez-faire attitude of Canadians toward homosexuality,'' said Christian Bourque, vice-president of Leger Marketing.

``If we had done the poll 15 years ago -- my God, how different the results would have been. I don't think a pollster would even have asked the question about same-sex adoption 20 years ago. Nobody would even have considered it.''(from given reference)

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It is found, those two-thirds of the U.S. public feels that homosexuality is wrong, 60% feel that it is disgusting, and only about one-fourth believes that it is a natural expression of sexuality. These attitudes are strongest among heterosexuals who say that they do not know anyone who is lesbian or gay – about two-thirds of U.S. heterosexual adults, according to Herek.

The trial has caused a storm in Egypt, where homosexuality is seen as a sin. Worldwide human rights groups have protested the arrests. Egyptian rule does not clearly refer to homosexuality, but a wide range of laws casing obscenity and public integrity are punishable by jail terms (from given reference).

"Many gay men and lesbians meet with rejection, discrimination, and even violence when they come out," (Herek, 1993). Job discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation is legal in most states and antigay hate crimes are common throughout the United States.

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Among the survey's other findings were that heterosexuals are twice as likely to know gay men as lesbians, that most heterosexuals reporting contact know two or more gay persons, and that the most common form of contact is with an acquaintance or casual friend. About 4% of the relationships reported were with an immediate family member, such as a child or sibling, (according to Herek.) About one-fifth were with a close friend, and more than half were with acquaintances.

The Human Rights Campaign was quick to issue a statement:

"We applaud the American Association of Pediatrics for strongly supporting second-parent adoptions by gay couples because they are indeed in the best interests of children," said HRC Executive Director Elizabeth Birch.

"We urge judges, legislators and policy makers to act on the wise recommendations of this distinguished organization."
It urges AAP members:
"Support the right of every child and family to the financial, psychological and legal security that results from having legally recognized parents who are committed to each other and the welfare of their children."

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References

Herek, G.M. (1986). The instrumentality of attitudes: Toward a nonfunctional theory. Journal of Social Issues, 42 (2), 99-114.

Herek, G.M. (1987). Can functions be measured? A new perspective on the functional approach to attitudes. Social Psychology Quarterly, 50(4), 285-303.

Herek, G.M. (1992). Psychological heterosexism and antigay violence: The social psychology of bigotry and bashing. In G.M. Herek, & K.T. Berrill (Eds.) Hate crimes: Confronting violence against lesbians and gay men (pp. 149-169). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Herek, G.M., & Glunt, E.K. (1993). Public attitudes toward AIDS-related issues in the United States. In J.B. Pryor & G.D. Reeder (Eds.), the social psychology of HIV infection (pp. 229-261). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Herek, G.M. (2000). The social construction of attitudes: Functional consensus and divergence in the US public's reactions to AIDS. In G. Maio & J. Olson (Eds.), why we evaluate: Functions of attitudes (pp. 325-364). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Dr. Gregory Herek. Research psychologist at the University of California at Davis and principal investigator for the national opinion survey, published in the April, 1996, issue of Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.

http://www.utexas.edu/utpress/books/fosgay.html
The American Heritage Dictionary (1992 edition)
The Human Rights Campaign was quick to issue a statement: HRC Executive Director Elizabeth Birch.


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