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A 4 Pages Term Paper on Male Competition in Sexual Selection

The need of sexual selection arises from the advantages that human beings have over others of the same sex and species in mating competition for reproduction. This procedure may give rise to excessive sexual characters that are directly damaging to staying alive, but advantageous to mating success.

It has been suggested by the present theoretical and experimental findings that mate preferences are primarily cued in on health in addition to developmental health. Attractive and alluring appearance have evolved infinite times in plants and animals due to the enormous selection pressures chiefly caused by females, and such preferences and beauty standards furnish evidence for the acknowledgment that human elegance and fascination with physical beauty equals like tendencies all over the plant and animal kingdoms.

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1“ Sexual selection is important at all levels of organization. It has been used to explain phenomena as diverse as sexual size dimorphism, extravagant ornamentation, sympatric speciation, or the rapid evolution of genes involved in fertilization. Standard theory of sexual selection focuses on two broad categories: male-male competition and female choice. Unfortunately, current models can usually not be applied straightforwardly to real-world systems. This is because the current models are not mechanistic, and equally important, because real-world systems do not obey the clear distinction between male-male competition and female choice.“

The diverse industry such as beauty, cosmetics and plastic surgery therefore only surface phenomena that supports this evolutionary version. Human beauty principles mirror our evolutionary distant and recent past and give emphasis to the role of health evaluation in mate selection. These findings suggest that, it is highly remote that human sexual behavior or mate preferences will shift to any notable degree during the future, even in the company of authoritarian measures.

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2“Although several other hypotheses have been proposed, the classical explanation for sexual size dimorphism is that it originates because there is a different relationship between body size and reproductive success in the two sexes. Among vertebrates, some of the more extreme cases of 'reversed' size.

A recent study investigated how body size affects the reproductive success in the two sexes in Gambusia holbrooki a small poeciliid fish introduced in Europe at the beginning of this century. Among females, fecundity increases with size and larger females produce larger offspring. The relationship between size and success in males appears complex. Since females try to avoid forced copulation’s and small males are less noticeable, the chance of success of a copulatory attempt increases with decreasing male length. However, when more males compete for the same females, larger individuals are always dominant and deny other males the access to mates. Male competition may be further reinforced by the capacity to recognize mates of higher quality, namely more fecund females and those that are close to fertilizing a new batch of eggs. Females do not exhibit co' operative mating behavior and do not show mating preference for male size in a choice test. However, when several males are competing, the females actively favor the guarding behavior of the dominant male, possibly an indirect form of mate choice.”

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It is a prevalent idea that humans vary from all other animals. It is also a extensive thought that somewhere in the world it is likely to find a culture where people live in compatibility with nature and each other, and were it not for the existence of Western culture.
The above mentioned claims are incorrect. Humans carry an incredibly huge baggage of evolutionary history, and the mere truth that our DNA sequences are comparable to those of our nearest relatives among the great apes to more than 99% makes it a highly remote claim that we could just step out of our ape dress. To a large extent is human nature is universal. This is also the case with regard to certain beauty standards and the ways in which males and females relate mutually.

3“Darwin viewed male sexual ornaments as a curious evolutionary puzzle that begged explanation. Natural selection tends to produce individuals that are well adapted to their environment. However, sexual selection does not adapt the individual to the environment but does enhance traits involved in mate acquisition.

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Darwin's theory was refined most recently by Trivers (1974) who observed that:

  1. Females are the limiting sex and invest more in offspring than males and many females are unavailable for fertilization because they are carrying for young or developing young,
  2. Because males tend to be in excess, males tend to develop ornaments for attracting females or engaging other males in contests. “

Two mechanisms are involved in sexual selection which are mate rivalry among individuals of the picked sex, usually males, for admittance to females has resulted in the evolution of weaponry such as antlers and horns, but also increases in mere male size that furnish some people with an advantage over others for access to females.

The second mechanism is mate choice by individuals of the choosy sex, usually females, that has resulted in the evolution of many weird characteristic such as the tail of the peacock, attractive coloration in birds and fishes and many kinds of vocalizations. Humans are not much distinct from other organisms by having evolved sexual size dimorphism due to male-male contention.

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Exorbitant secondary sexual symbols are carefully thought about to be gorgeous by humans and maybe also by animals in general. If both animals and humans find comparable structures engaging, the probable reason is that animal and human psychologies have changed to see and become disturbed by these impressions.

Sugar is only thought to be sweet by humans because the pleasant and powerful feeling of sweetness during our evolutionary past has been molded by the benefits that we obtained in situation of verve and nutrition from eating fruits and other structures with certain chemical properties.

In the same way, faces of women and specific range of waists and hips are only contemplated to be attractive because our ancestors with such preferences left more and more healthful offspring than the average personal in the population.

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Sexual selection can work in a number of distinct ways because sexual signals may help in provide different kinds of knowledge to likely receivers. Female beauty points out youth, fertility and health while male assets points out male competing prowess and fitness.
If the male signal and the female choice both have a genetic support, particular females will on average couple up with males with out of proportion secondary sexual symbol and the mate choice and the signal will become genetically joined as an outcome of this procedure. The male characteristic and the female choice will coevolve to ever more exceptional versions that intensify male mating accomplishment until the mating advantage is in equilibrium by an oppositely supervised natural selection strain, or until the genetic divergence in either female preference or male trait become drained.

Human fascination with charm in present Western societies is not much distinct from comparable efforts in other societies, and the mere accomplishment of the industry is an image of the tremendous power of our psychological adaptations and mate preferences.
The strong ideology among women in the wonders of cosmetics and their capability to arrange endless youth surely is fixed on the attendance of the same psychological adaptations.

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With the progress of plastic surgery these much preferred and well-liked looks of human female beauty can be acquired in a more constant state as compared to the short-lived state of cosmetics. Not uncommonly almost all plastic surgery attempts to correct asymmetries and overstate traits that are thought about to be commonly beautiful and dependable indicators of health and fertility.
The organisms like parasites and diseases have also played a significant role in human evolution, and perhaps even more so than in many of our close relatives. Parasites put forth immense selection pressures on their hosts by curtailing their longevity and reproductive successfulness. It is a well known fact known for a long time that mankind vary in their susceptibleness to parasites because of genetically determined host opposition, and sexual choosing for healthy partners would obviously furnish choosy individuals with substantially important fitness benefits.

Sexual selection pertaining to parasite-mediation may benefit selective individuals by preventing them from getting mates with infectious parasites that could diffusion both to themselves and their offspring, obtaining mates that were competent parents, and obtaining mates that were genetically defiant to parasites.

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On a Concluding note what I want to say is that sexual selection is the study of what might be called beauty perception and its part in mating competition in both plants and animals. Human fascination with beauty is no different that like obsessions in other organisms. It is no parallelism that numerous people have been capable to exploit this truth that is not a outcome of a male chauvinist society.
Humans are sexually size dimorphic with males being larger than females, females restraining male reproductive success, and male resources being the decisive goal for female mate choice.

Given this past and the manner in which even present human behavior strictly matches this history, it is highly remote that we can modify human nature to just a small degree. What can be done is attempts to put together societies that give emphasis to the strengths and weaknesses of the two sexes rather than trying to force sexual equality onto our appearances and psychologies, characteristic that have evolved during millions of years in our evolutionary past.

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References

    1. http://www.biol.rug.nl/theobio/research/sander/sexsel-symspec.html
    2. http://home.clara.net/xenotoca/male.htm

                     Male competition, female mate choice and the evolutionof sexual size dimorphism in livebearing fishes by Angelo Bisazza

    1. http://www.biology.ucsc.edu/~barrylab/classes/animal_behavior/SELECT.HTM
                      Adaptation and Selection by Barry Sinervo 1997
 
 


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