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Running Head: Manufacturing Process of Polyurethane


Manufacturing Process of Polyurethane

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Polyurethane is a unique material that offers the elasticity of rubber combined with the toughness and durability of metal. Because urethane is available in a very broad hardness range (eraser-soft to bowling-ball-hard), it allows the engineer to replace rubber, plastic and metal with the ultimate in abrasion resistance and physical properties. Polyurethane can reduce plant maintenance and OEM product cost. Many applications using this ultra-tough material have cut down-time, maintenance time and cost of parts to a fraction of the previous figures. Urethanes have better abrasion and tear resistance than rubbers, while offering higher load bearing capacity.  Compared to plastics, urethanes offer superior impact resistance, while offering excellent wear properties and elastic memory.

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Urethanes have replaced metals in sleeve bearings, wear plates, sprockets, rollers and various other parts, with benefits such as weight reduction, noise abatement and wear improvements being realized. Polyurethanes are one of the most versatile materials today. Their many uses range from flexible foam in upholstered furniture to rigid foam as insulation in walls and roofs to thermoplastic polyurethane used in medical devices and footwear to coatings, adhesives, sealants and elastomers used on floors and automotive interiors. Flexible polyurethane foam's versatility of form and function can be seen in bedding, furniture, automotive interiors, carpet underlay and packaging. Foam can be created in almost any variety of shape and firmness. In addition, it's light, durable, supportive and comfortable. The main polyurethane producing reaction is between a diisocyanate (aromatic and aliphatic types are available) and a polyol, typically a polypropylene glycol or polyester polyol, in the presence of catalysts and materials for controlling the cell structure, (surfactants) in the case of foams. Polyurethane can be made in a variety of densities and hardnesses by varying the type of monomer(s) used and adding other substances to modify their characteristics, notably density, or enhance their performance. Other additives can be used to improve the fire performance, stability in difficult chemical environments and other properties of the polyurethane products.

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Though the properties of the polyurethane are determined mainly by the choice of polyol, the diisocyanate exerts some influence, and must be suited to the application. The cure rate is influenced by the functional group reactivity and the number of functional isocyanate groups. The mechanical properties are influenced by the functionality and the molecular shape. The choice of diisocyanate also affects the stability of the polyurethane upon exposure to light. Polyurethanes made with aromatic diisocyanates yellow with exposure to light, whereas those made with aliphatic diisocyanates are stable.  Softer, elastic, and more flexible polyurethanes result when linear difunctional polyethylene glycol segments, commonly called polyether polyols, are used to create the urethane links. This strategy is used to make spandex elastomeric fibers and soft rubber parts, as well as foam rubber. More rigid products result if polyfunctional polyols are used, as these create a three-dimensional cross-linked structure which, again, can be in the form of a low-density foam. Even more rigid foam can be made with the use of specialty trimerization catalysts which create cyclic structures within the foam matrix, giving a harder, more thermally stable structure, designated as polyisocyanurate foams. Such properties are desired in rigid foam products used in the construction sector.

Careful control of viscoelastic properties — by modifying the catalysts and polyols used —can lead to memory foam, which is much softer at skin temperature than at room temperature. There are then two main foam variants: one in which most of the foam bubbles (cells) remain closed, and the gas(es) remains trapped, the other being systems which have mostly open cells, resulting after a critical stage in the foam-making process (if cells did not form, or became open too soon, foam would not be created). This is a vitally important process: if the flexible foams have closed cells, their softness is severely compromised, they become pneumatic in feel, rather than soft; so, generally speaking, flexible foams are required to be open-celled. The opposite is the case with most rigid foams. Here, retention of the cell gas is desired since this gas (especially the fluorocarbons referred to above) gives the foams their key characteristic: high thermal insulation performance. (Harrington, Ron; Hock, Kathy. 2004)

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A third foam variant, called microcellular foam, yields the tough elastomeric materials typically experienced in the coverings of car steering wheels and other interior automotive components. Polyurethane products have many uses. Over three quarters of the global consumption of polyurethane products is in the form of foams, with flexible and rigid types being roughly equal in market size. In both cases, the foam is usually behind other materials: flexible foams are behind upholstery fabrics in commercial and domestic furniture; rigid foams are inside the metal and plastic walls of most refrigerators and freezers, or behind paper, metals and other surface materials in the case of thermal insulation panels in the construction sector. Its use in garments is growing: for example, in lining the cups of brassieres. Polyurethane is also used for moldings which include door frames, columns, balusters, window headers, pediments, medallions and rosettes. The precursors of expanding polyurethane foam are available in many forms, for use in insulation, sound deadening, flotation, industrial coatings, packing material, and even cast-in-place upholstery padding. Since they adhere to most surfaces and automatically fill voids, they have become quite popular in these applications. Polyurethanes are used to make automobile seats in a remarkable manner. The seat manufacturer has a mold for each seat model. The mold is a closeable "clamshell" sort of structure that will allow quick casting of the seat cushion, so-called molded flexible foam, which is then upholstered after removal from the mold. The walls and ceiling (not just the insulation) of the futuristic Xanadu House were built out of polyurethane foam. Domed ceilings and other odd shapes are easier to make with foam than with wood. Foam was used to build oddly-shaped buildings, statues, and decorations in the Seuss Landing section of the Islands of Adventure theme park. Specialty rigid foam manufactures sell foam that replace wood in carved sign and 3D topography industries . Some surfboards are made with a solid polyurethane core. A rigid foam blank is molded, shaped to specification, then covered with fiberglass cloth and polyester resin.

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The hull of the Boston Whaler motorboat is polyurethane foam sandwiched in a fiberglass skin. The foam provides strength, buoyancy, and sound deadening. Polyurethane sealants are available in 1, 2 and even 3 part systems, either in cartridge, bucket or drum format. Polyurethane sealants are also sold for firestopping applications. Obviously, the sealant by itself provides no serious hindrance to fire, as its hydrocarbon bonds readily support combustion. However, when backed by inorganic insulation, such as rockwool or ceramic fibers, it can act as an effective seal to thwart smoke and hose-stream passage, particularly in inorganic joints. It is, however, advisable to avoid direct contact with metallic penetrants and through-penetrating cables, as the heat carried by the penetrants may jeopardize the sealant. (Ulrich, Henri. 2006)

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Feske, Bert (October 2004). "The Use of Polyurethane Industry Technical Conference.

Gum, Wilson; Riese, Wolfram; Ulrich, Henri (2002). Reaction Polymers.

Harrington, Ron; Hock, Kathy (2004). Flexible Polyurethane Foams.

Petrel, Gunter (2005). Polyurethane Handbook. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co

lrich, Henri (2006). Chemistry and Technology of Isocyanides

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