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Running Head: Does language play roles of equal importance in different areas of knowledge

 

Does language play roles of equal importance in different areas of knowledge?

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Theory of Knowledge (ToK) is a high school epistemology course taken by all International Baccalaureate Diploma Program students. This course discusses how the student is able to know something. The student is described as an "actor of knowledge" who attempts to find knowledge, where knowledge, as defined by Plato, is "justified true belief".

The course teaches that there are four Ways of Knowing (WoK): perception, emotion, reason, and language. (In the new syllabus, "sense perception" has replaced "perception" in order to reduce ambiguity.) Also used are the following six Areas of Knowledge (AoK), which are put here in the form of a spectrum, the two ends of which are labelled "objective" and "subjective", from left to right respectively: mathematics, natural sciences, social sciences, history, the arts, and ethics. Also the course discusses Problems of Knowledge, or limitations of knowledge, concerning the WoK and AoK.

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The course teaches nine reasons for justification of things one claims to know: logic, sensory perception, revelation, faith, memory, consensus, authority, intuition, and self-awareness.

The areas of knowledge, which are situated within the perimeter of the TOK diagram (figure 1), are subject areas or disciplines into which knowledge is frequently classified. They may be seen as an application of ways of knowing, perhaps shaped by methodology, to particular subject matter. The questions that follow in this section deal with both the rationale for such classification and the interdisciplinary comparisons that clarify or challenge the division of knowledge into areas. Reference to the following linking questions may also be useful.

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Also studied are the four supposed truth tests: coherence, correspondence, pragmatism, and consensus.

These nine justifications and four truth tests are key to the introduction of ToK.

This is an IB- Theory of Knowledge. I myself have chosen this and from what I understand it is asking about language as a way of knowing and not spoken language, though they are quite related. To answer this, one must first look back at the question you first learn to answer in ToK class. What is the difference between an area of knowledge and a way of knowing?

First off, an area of knowledge is the general subjects in which we classify information we take in everyday. There are six of these and they are Mathematics, Social or Human Science, Natural Science, History, Ethics, and Art.

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A way of knowing is the method in which we are able to know and understand a piece of information. Also a way of knowing helps us classify our information into one of the 6 areas of knowledge. There are four ways of knowing and these are language, reason, perception, and emotion.

For example, we know that 1+1=2 becuase of reason, if we add one to one, we know by reason alone that we will get 2.

I haven't finished my essay yet but this is what i used to start it off. Now I'm trying to connect what aspects of each Area of knowledge are known by language and how each one depends on language- and I know for sure that each depends on language quite a bit.

We have seen that resolving ambiguity in sentences requires an interpreter to have a general knowledge of the world. Understanding the significance of a vague utterance expressed in context also requires knowledge. Thus, a theoretical model of language understanding is not complete without a model of knowledge representation and retrieval, and we cannot construct a robust understanding computer without providing it with an encyclopaedic knowledge of the world. These are rather pessimistic conclusions, but they need not prevent us from continuing with the theoretical study of language or indeed from constructing useful computer programs that operate in limited domains. They do, however, suggest that we must try to classify in a rigorous way the kinds of knowledge that guide a language user and codify enough of it to ensure that our overall models are realistic.

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How can knowledge of the world guide a reader to correctly interpret a partially ambiguous piece of natural language encountered in context? Where a sentence is ambiguous, world knowledge must indicate that some possible readings are to be preferred over others. At the simplest, it may allow some readings to be rejected because they presuppose physically impossible situations, but even this will be inadequate if the writer is using metaphor or has established a context where the normal physical laws do not apply. We can represent knowledge of prototypical events as sequences of expected actions in 'scripts' for the events. To come up with sensible expectations, a robust natural language interpreter will need to have a large number of such scripts. This introduces many questions: How can an interpreter decide which script is appropriate for a given situation? Whether the current script is no longer adequate? How to handle deviations from expected behaviour? The more interesting stories about human beings frequently cannot be understood in terms of stereotyped situations. Rather, it is necessary to reason at a lower level about the goals and plans of the participants to generate expectations

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Language is particularly important for all other areas of development and understanding but is equally important to realise that language is not always spoken but can be in the form of signs and gestures, such as sign language and body language.

We are individuals and as such will develop communication/language skills at different rates, although we will all go through the same stages. The way in which these skills develop are influenced by our environment.

It is vital that we encourage a language rich environment by providing opportunities for people to communicate as this will support people to develop to their full potential & also to develop positive listening skills. This means more than just hearing sounds, it is being able to understand and interpret them too.

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Language is an extraordinary gift of God. It is part of what makes us fully human. In fact, Aristotle says man is a rational animal and that what sets him apart, what raises him above the animals, is that he has the ability to reason, and it is very clear that he cannot reason without language. Language is necessary in order for man to be a rational creature, and only to man has it been given. Some claim that porpoises and gorillas talk. It is only a sign of how far this has gone when I have to defend the proposition that language is unique to man. For years propaganda has come down that the porpoises are squeaking to each other, that the gorillas are talking to each other, and the chimpanzees can push the right button and get their banana. What we know is that language is special, and it is one of the things that defines man. Beyond being a manifestation of his power to reason, language is there so that we can pray, that we can communicate. We can write beautiful things which appeal to reason, such as poetry, etc. But, perhaps first and most importantly, I defer to St. Paul who tells us that faith itself comes by hearing.

If faith comes by hearing then we need language to tell each other the great truths of that Faith. There is no other way in which the Faith can be communicated or understood, and even in the case of infused knowledge we still are in need of language in order to comprehend it

There are 6,912 languages spoken in the world. The knowledge of additional languages opens doors to new opportunities, and cultures. Learning a second language provides benefits for a lifetime. Advantages are academic, cultural, professional and personal. I don't believe the importance of language learning, however, is always seen in this part of the country. The world is shrinking. Internet and improved communication connect countries. Businesses are expanding internationally, and war is bringing us all closer to other countries.

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English has only the fourth highest number of native speakers. About 870 million people speak Mandarin. Hindi has the second largest number of native speakers, Spanish third, with 350 million native speakers. English comes in fourth. One of the most powerful things that foreign language does is to increase your skills in your native language. Language learning forces you to pay attention to word choice and sentence structure. Overall, your writing and communication skills are strengthened.

Maybe not everyone gets as enthusiastic as me about how, if anything, foreign languages add to your knowledge base. But if you need more concrete benefits, employment and compensation are great motivators. More companies are looking for bilingual employees. The government is one of the obvious employers of people skilled in more than one language. In a study done after September 11th, 2001, it was found that foreign language proficiency was required to effectively perform jobs in 80 federal agencies. Jobs in law enforcement often require that multiple languages are known. The medical field is also an area where bilingual speakers are needed.

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References

The knowledge value chain: how intellectual capital impacts on business performance' by Carlucci, D., Marr, B., &  Schiuma, G.; Publishers: NY: Guilford Press (2004).
Overcoming Organizational Defences: Facilitating     Organizational Learning by Argyris, Chris ; Publishers:   Chicago: University of Chicago Press (1992).
Learning Leaders: The Key to Learning Organisations  Development in Practice by Hailey, John and Rick James;   Publishers: New York and London: Garland Publishing   (1997).
Knowledge for Development by King, Kenneth and Simon McGrath; Publishers: Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press (2003).
Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning   Organization Science by March, James G; publishers: Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall (1991).
Development as Process: Concepts and Methods for Working with Complexity by Mosse, David, John Farrington and Alan Rew;  Publishers: Times Books (2005).
Minding the Gap through Organisational Learning by Pasteur,   Kath and Patta Scott Villiers; Publishers: New York, Twayne Publishers (2003).
The development of knowledge management and why it is     important in Knowledge Management for Development  Organisations by Savage, Charles; Publishers: Hart   Publishing (2000).
The Learning Leader as Culture Manager’ in Organizational Culture and Leadership by Schein, Edgar; Publishers: Hart   Publishing (1992).

The Art and Practice of the Learning Organisation by Senge,   Peter; Publishers: Georgetown University Thesis(1990).

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