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A 6 pages term paper on FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT

Functions of Management

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Functions of Management


               A supervisory manager comes in the top-level management. He/she has the following responsibilities like:

  • Makes detailed short-range operating plans.
  • Reviews performances of subordinates
  • Supervises day-to-day operations.
  • Makes a specific task assignment.
  • Maintains close contacts with office employees.

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Functions of management

The comprehensive list of managerial functions are grouped under:

1. Planning
2. Organizing
3. Motivating
4. Controlling
5. Coordinating
6. Decision-making

But we will discuss the four main functions:

1. Planning
      Plans are necessary to give the organization directions to achieve its goals and objectives. The top-level managers do the long-range planning and the rest do the day-to-day or the short-range planning. The elements in the planning are:

1) The policies to achieve the goals.
2) The programs to be done.
3) The procedures used by the manager.
4) The time scheduling which the manager keeps.
5) The budgetary considerations, which are involved.

These all are inter linked and are planned together.

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 2. Organizing
      When there are organized plans and objectives, and then there is the need for the developed organization to carry out the programs. Organizing is a continue process and this involves the staffing which includes the selection of qualified people to carry out the work. The elements included in this procedure are:

1) To group the activities into functions logically.
2) For the best functioning results, the manager has to decide which function has to be on which position.
3) A relationship must be established between the manager and the subordinates to provide the information to do the job.
4) The manager has to inspect the relations among his and other units and their effect on its operation.

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3. Leading

     The supervisor has to lead the whole staff, for this purpose he has to have a leading personality and to lead he has to follow the things like motivating his workers, and has a quality of decision-making. The people put the programs forward and to motivate them, the manager has to create a situation in which the people work well and with interest. The elements in this situation and their effects on the employees are:

1) The degree to which the employee feels his and organization’s goals should be same.
2) The employee’s relation with his co-workers and supervisor.
3) The job fulfills his personal needs and his future seems to be secure.
4) The extent to which he satisfies with his work, and a sense of devotion for the accomplishment of his given work.

     As the organizations need to be divided and specialized in their activities, they also need the coordination in work. This is one of the functions of the manager in which he keeps the balance of using the resources to attain the objectives.

     Coordination is needed in both up and down in the organization structure. Principles such as chain of command and unity of command help to achieve the coordination. In some organizations, special staff services are utilized to secure coordination.

     As we know that the manager doesn’t do things, he decides to do and he gets things done by others. Similarly, making decisions is not just an element of manager’s job; it is his job.

     It is also necessary that the manager makes correct decisions; this requires all his skills and ability of judgment. This correct decision-making power also requires different types of resources and utilization of materials.

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4. Controlling

     The process of controlling is actually measuring of the performance and its comparison with the established standards. The manager has to keep the track of the organization before it goes far from its goals. This function involves:

1) Comparing results achieved with the actual objectives.
2) Measuring actual costs with the planned costs.

These all functions, which are done by the manager, require all his fully devotion and sincerity to the organization he is working for. These all functions are utterly different from each other. Although many of their qualities seem to be similar but these are different. As the supervisor has to control all the staff and their functions and to lead means, he has to take the organization to a level that it can achieve its required target. There is a goal that has been provided to every organization and similarly, its the duty of the supervisor to lead its staff and company to that goal. On the other hand, planning is the main function, without planning, an organization cannot be lead forward. And yet, planning is another function. This is how these functions can be different from each other.


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