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Running head: Operational Styles of CJ Scholars

 

Operational Styles of CJ Scholars

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Operational Styles of CJ Scholars

 

The roles of police officers are defined and explained. The characteristics of police work are laid out so that the student may understand the nature of policing. The various operational styles presented by different writers are put forward as an explanation for individual and departmental behavior. The work of James Q. Wilson explains the legalistic style, watchman style and service style of policing. The work of John Broderick explains what enforcers; idealists, optimists and realists do in their policing activities. The work of William Muir explains what are professionals, enforcers, reciprocators, and avoiders. Since its establishment, the field of American criminology has been dominated by liberal scholars. But, over the past ten years, neoconservatism has become a force in criminology. Wilson, the leading advocate of this right-ward move, and Herrnstein, who is noted for his work on I.Q., race, and meritocracy, have written what should become the major source on this important development in criminology. Its moderate, Aristotelian behavioral theory is reminiscent of Edward Banfield's Unheavenly City Revisited and Ernest V.an Den Haag's Punishing Criminals.

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Thus, constitutional criminal procedure has its genesis in a heightened concern for those unlikely to find protection through the political process. This journal's incarcerated readers-who are largely poor and from minority groups, have lost their right to vote, have been segregated from the law-abiding community, and have a difficult time attracting the interest of anyone outside the prison's walls-will immediately, understand that concern. What they may find harder to comprehend is the argument, fast gaining ground in the academy and beyond that the era of concern for the marginalized in criminal justice has passed. Over the last few years the attention and focus of legislative activity related to identity theft, both here in America and across the globe, has been twofold: first, the ever-increasing criminalization of identity misuse or misappropriation and second, the imposition of more stringent privacy and security requirements on personal identification information. With all due respect the former will have little impact on terrorists willing to sacrifice their very lives for some ill-conceived greater good while the latter may prove of real value. In a major contribution to the criminology literature examines the societal expectations for police work--from national, regional, and local perspectives--and attempts to identify the conflicts within these expectations.

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